Printing Glossary – Terms starting with C

# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

C1S and C2S

Acronyms for Coated One Side and Coated Two Sides paper stock. A cover stock with a glossy finish on one side and uncoated on the other, usually between 8pt (.008″) and 18pt (.018″) in thickness.

Calender

To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing

Caliper

The measurement of the thickness of paper measured in thousandths of an inch or mils.

Camera Service

Business using a process camera to make photostats, halftones, plates and other elements for printing. Also called prep service and trade camera service

Camera-ready Copy

Mechanicals, photographs and art fully prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Also called finished art and reproduction copy

Carbonless Paper

Paper that is chemically treated to transfer the impression from the first page to the subsequent pages. See Carbonless NCR Form Printing for more detailed info.

Carload

Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL

Carton

Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight

Case

Covers and spine that, as a unit, enclose the pages of a casebound book

Case Bind

To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover

Case binding

Books bound using hard board (case) covers.

Cast coated

A paper that is coated and then pressure dried using a polished roller that imparts an enamel like hard gloss finish.

Cast-coated Paper

High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet

Catalog Paper

Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines

Center spread

The two pages that face each other in the center of a book or publication.

Chain Dot

(1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic term for any midtone dots whose corners touch

Chain lines

Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of the papermaking machine.

Chalking

Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking

Check Copy

(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as printed, finished and bound correctly. (2) One set of gathered book signatures approved by the customer as ready for binding

Choke

Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny

Chrome

Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation

Clip art

Graphic images, designs, and artwork in digital form that can be used in a digital document.

Close Up

A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages

CMYK

Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors

Coarse screen

Halftone screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per inch.

Coated Paper

Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte

Coated stock

Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.

Coil Binding

Where a metal or plastic wire is spiraled through holes punched along the side of a stack of paper. Commonly used for reports, proposals and manuals. Documents bound with coil have the ability to lay flat and can rotate 360 degrees. Also called spiral binding.

Cold color

Any color that is toward the blue side of the color spectrum.

Collate

To gather sheets or printed signatures together in their correct order.

Collating Marks

Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage

Colophon

A printers’ or publishers’ identifying symbol or emblem.

Color balance

The relative amounts of process colors used to reproduce an image, either digitally or when printed on a press.

Color bars

A color test strip that is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It helps a press operator to monitor and control the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration and dot gain. It can also include a Star Target, which is designed to detect inking and press problems.

Color Blanks

Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type. Also called shells

Color Break

In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break for color

Color cast

Unwanted color tone or overall color shading distorting the normal color balance of a photographic image.

Color Control Bar

Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar

Color Correct

To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors

Color correction

Using a computer to adjust, change or manipulate a color image, such as retouching, adjusting color balance, color saturation, contrast, etc.

Color Curves

Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables

Color Electronic Prepress System

Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed for image assembly, color correction, retouching and output onto proofing materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS

Color gamut

The entire range of hues possible to reproduce on a specific system, such as a computer screen, or four-color printing press.

Color Key

Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay color proof

Color Model

Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found in nature

Color separating

The processes of separating the primary color components (CMYK) for printing.

Color Separation

(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing. Also called separation

Color sequence

The order in which process inks are printed on a printing press. Also called the color rotation or laydown sequence.

Color shift

Change in the perceived color of elements on a printed piece caused by changes or irregularities in ink densities, dot gain, or color register during a four-color printing press run.

Color transparency

Transparent film containing a positive photographic color image.

Comb Bind

To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name)

Comb Binding

Binding a stack of paper together by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb into holes punched along one of the edges. Commonly used for catalogs, reports and manuals.

Commercial Printer

Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different

Complementary Flat(s)

The second or additional flat(s) used when making composite film or for two or more burns on one printing plate

Composite Art

Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated onto overlays. Composite art has a tissue overlay with instructions that indicate color breaks

Composite Film

Film made by combining images from two or more pieces of working film onto one film for making one plate

Composite Proof

Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof

Composition

(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page

Comprehensive Dummy

Simulation of a printed piece complete with type, graphics and colors. Also called color comprehensive and comp

Condensed type

A narrow, elongated typeface.

Condition

To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom. Also called cure, mature and season

Contact Platemaker

Device with lights, timing mechanism and vacuum frame used to make contact prints, duplicate film, proofs and plates. Also called platemaker and vacuum frame

Continuous-tone Copy

All photographs and those illustrations having a range of shades not made up of dots, as compared to line copy or halftones. Abbreviated contone

Contrast

The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.

Converter

Business that makes products such as boxes, bags, envelopes and displays

Copyboard

Surface or frame on a process camera that holds copy in position to be photographed

Cover

A term describing a general type of paper used for the covers of books, pamphlets, etc., also used for business cards and postcards.

Cover Paper

Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books

Coverage

The extent to which printing ink covers the surface of a printed sheet. Ink coverage is frequently expressed as light, medium or heavy.

Crash

Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding. Also called gauze, mull and scrim

Creep

Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling

Crop

To reduce the size of an image.

Crop marks

Small printed lines around the edges of a printed piece indicating where it is to be cut out of the sheet. Sometimes referred to as cut marks.

Crossover

An image, rule or line art on one printed page that carries over to an adjacent page of a bound or folded work.

Cure

To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff

Customer Service Representative

Employee of a printer, service bureau, separator or other business who coordinates projects and keeps customers informed. Abbreviated CSR

Cut Sizes

Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses

Cutoff

Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper

Cutting Die

Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects

Cutting Machine

A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing

CWT

Abbreviation for hundredweight using the Roman numeral C=100

Cyan

A shade of blue used in four-color process printing. The C in CMYK. Also referred to as process blue.