Printing Glossary – Terms starting with G

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Galley Proof

Proof of type from any Source, whether metal type or photo type. Also called checker and slip proof

Gang

(1) To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. (2) To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run

Ganging

The combining of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.

Gate fold

A three or four panel fold where the two outside panels fold inward to meet in the center. In an open gate fold, there are three panels, the bottom of which is twice the size of the folded panels. In a closed gatefold, there are four panels of roughly equal size where the outer panels are folded inward together.

Gathered

Signatures assembled next to each other in the proper sequence for binding, as compared to nested. Also called stacked

Gathering

Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence. See also collate.

Ghost Halftone

Normal halftone whose density has been reduced to produce a very faint image

Ghosting

Also known as gloss ghosting. A condition occurring during the printing process when vapors from drying ink on one side of a press sheet interact chemically with dry ink or blank paper on sheets in contact with or on the reverse side of the same sheet creating unintended faint images.

Gilding

Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book

Gloss

Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish)

Gloss Ink

Ink used and printed on coated stock (mostly litho and letterpress) such as the ink will dry without penetration

Grade

General term used to distinguish between or among printing papers, but whose specific meaning depends on context. Grade can refer to the category, class, rating, finish or brand of paper

Graduated Screen Tint

Screen tint that changes densities gradually and smoothly, not in distinct steps. Also called degrade, gradient, ramped screen and vignette

Grain

Paper fibers lie in a similar direction in a sheet of paper. This direction is called the grain. Printing is usually done so that if folding is required, the fold is done parallel to the grain.

Grain Direction

Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction

Grain Long Paper

Paper whose fibers run parallel to the long dimension of the sheet. Also called long grain paper and narrow web paper

Grain Short Paper

Paper whose fibers run parallel to the short dimension of the sheet. Also called short grain paper and wide web paper

Grammage

Basis weight of paper in grams per square meter (gsm)

Graphic Arts

The crafts, industries and professions related to designing and printing on paper and other substrates

Graphic Arts Film

Film whose emulsion yields high contrast images suitable for reproduction by a printing press, as compared to continuous-tone film. Also called litho film and repro film

Graphic Design

Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message

Graphics

Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting

Gravure

A printing process using recessed areas on a metal cylinder that hold the ink.

Gray Balance

Printed cyan, magenta and yellow halftone dots that accurately, reproduce a neutral gray image

Gray Component Replacement

Technique of replacing gray tones in the yellow, cyan and magenta films, made while color separating, with black ink. Abbreviated GCR. Also called achromatic color removal

Gray Levels

Number of distinct gray tones that can be reproduced by a computer

Gray Scale

Strip of gray values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge

Grind Edge

Alternate term for binding edge when referring to perfect bound products

Grindoff

Approximately 1/8 inch (3 mm) along the spine that is ground off gathered signatures before perfect binding

Gripper

A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through a printing press.

Gripper edge

The side of a piece of paper held by the gripper fingers as it passes through a printing press. Nothing can be printed in this area.

Groundwood Paper

Newsprint and other inexpensive paper made from pulp created when wood chips are ground mechanically rather than refined chemically

GSM

The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter)

Gutter

A blank space or margin between components on a printed piece or press sheet.